Based on research by Human Rights Watch, a MacArthur grantee, the European Court of Human Rights upheld an absolute ban on deporting people to countries where they risk being tortured. The decision stems from the case of a Tunisian national legally residing in Italy who was convicted in Tunisia for membership in a terrorist organization. Italy said Nassim Saadi posed a threat to national security. Saadi argued in his appeal to the Court that he would be at risk of torture if returned to his home country. The European Court of Human Rights supported his position, citing research by Human Rights Watch and other groups on torture practices by Tunisian police.