MacArthur Fellows Program

Andrea Ghez

Astrophysicist | Class of 2008

Using novel, ground-based telescopic techniques to identify thousands of new star systems and illuminate the role of super-massive black holes in the evolution of galaxies.

Title
Astrophysicist
Affiliation
University of California, Los Angeles
Location
Los Angeles, California
Age
43 at time of award

Andrea Ghez is an astronomer who has opened important windows of galactic observation by overcoming previous limitations of ground-based instruments. Thermal fluctuations in the Earth’s atmosphere create distortions that prevent even large telescopes from resolving very closely spaced objects. Early in her career, Ghez adapted a technique known as speckle imaging, in which many very short exposures are digitally added, to work more effectively in the infrared spectrum (which penetrates cosmic dust much more readily than visible light). This advance allowed Ghez and others to identify thousands of tightly orbiting binary- and multiple-star systems, previously supposed to be individual stars. Comparing the age and orbital properties of these stars with previously identified, wider-spaced binary systems provides key insights into the interplay of mass, momentum, and magnetism that determines the course of star formation from amorphous clouds of cosmic gas. More recently, Ghez has advanced the use of adaptive optics in the infrared spectrum, in which an “artificial star” is created from ground-based lasers to correct for atmospheric distortions. Using both speckle imaging and adaptive optics on the 10m Keck telescope, Ghez and her colleagues mapped with extraordinarily high precision the movement of a group of stars in the Sagittarius constellation near the center of our galaxy. Through painstaking, long-term analyses, her group and another based in Germany identified a set of stars orbiting a common point at extraordinary velocities (measurable fractions of the speed of light), implying the presence of a super-massive black hole at the galactic center. Ghez has developed evidence that the stars closest to the black hole are surprisingly young. As Ghez continues to improve the spatial resolution and precision of instruments in deciphering the dust-obscured regions of the central galaxy, we will develop a much clearer picture of the role of central, massive black holes in the origin and evolution of the galaxies.

Andrea Ghez received a B.S. (1987) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an M.S. (1989) and Ph.D. (1992) from the California Institute of Technology. She has been affiliated with the University of California, Los Angeles, since 1994, where she is currently a professor of physics and astronomy. Her articles have appeared in such publications as Nature, the Astrophysical Journal, and Astronomy and Astrophysics.

News About this Fellow
September 25, 2015
"How MacArthur Geniuses Handle Their Money Windfalls"
The New York Times
Andrea Ghez, 2008 MacArthur Fellow
Edith Widder , 2006 MacArthur Fellow
Sarah Otto, 2011 MacArthur Fellow
Kyle Abraham, Sheila Nirenberg, 2013 MacArthur Fellows
Steve Coleman, 2014 MacArthur Fellow
April 6, 2015
"Astronomers Lock Horns Over Mystery Object G2"
Space Exploration Network
Andrea Ghez, 2008 MacArthur Fellow
March 26, 2015
"Mysterious Supermassive Black Hole Crash"
Clapway
Andrea Ghez, 2008 MacArthur Fellow
November 6, 2014
"Black Hole Fails to Destroy Mystery Cosmic Cloud"
National Geographic
Andrea Ghez, 2008 MacArthur Fellow
November 4, 2014
"Mysterious G2 Cloud Near Black Hole Identified"
Astronomy Magazine
Andrea Ghez, 2008 MacArthur Fellow
November 4, 2014
"Astronomers Identify Mysterious Object at Heart of Milky Way"
Science Magazine
Andrea Ghez, 2008 MacArthur Fellow
April 14, 2014
"A Black Hole at the Center of the Galaxy"
BlogTalkRadio
Andrea Ghez, 2008 MacArthur Fellow
August 16, 2013
"How a Black Hole Really Works "
The Wall Street Journal
Andrea Ghez, 2008 MacArthur Fellow
December 3, 2009
"Andrea Ghez: The Hunt for a Supermassive Black Hole"
TED
Andrea Ghez, 2008 MacArthur Fellow
View all news

Photos

Photos are owned by the MacArthur Foundation and licensed under a Creative Commons license: CC-BY.
Credit: John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.

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